What is the best Intelligence in world? Normally we say CIA, M16, KGB.....Well I say CIA and M16 are the brand names with multi-billion dollar funded.
The top agency is the Israel one "Massod" (ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim). But Massod always maintained a low profile and did great achievements. They are made stronger by their neighboring enemies.
The second best in the world really goes to India, don't be surprised when I said so. Yes, its true, we have a great intelligence agencies better than CIA and M16, we evaded many attacks, busted many plots, active in enemy lands. Every one will fail, that the example of recent blast in Hyderabad, Mumbai and Delhi. In the recent blast in Hyderabad, central intelligence had warned local police before the attack, but it was not handled well. We have some loop holes between the agencies, but its also good in some way not to dominate the local agencies with international/central agencies. Like CIA, which they always have hyper reports between their agencies (FBI) and lead to some ugly situations, and every one should know that CIA commits over 1,00,000 serious crimes per year. The best example I can say is the recent war in Iraq by Bush, who just relayed on baseless and untrue reports from CIA saying that Iraq is having WMD (Weapons of mass destructions), Nukes and planning attack on US. When the US army hit the pillars of Iraq, they found nothing...
The King "... should divide the day as well as the night into eight parts . . . During the fifth, he should hold consultations with the council of ministers through correspondence and also keep himself informed of the secret reports brought by spies.... During the first one-eighth part of the night, he should meet the officers of the secret service.... During the seventh, he should hold consultations and send out the officers of the secret service for their operations."
The Duties of a King The Arthasastra
Kautilya - Prime Minister to Emperor Chandragupta Maurya (4th Century BCE)
Here is the list of Indian Intelligences, I tried my best to cover all of them.
Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)
The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) of the government of
The National Security Council (NSC), established on 24 August 1990, includes the Prime Minister as Chairman, and the Home Minister, External Affairs Minister, Defence Minister and Finance Minister as members. Since its inception the Council has met just once, on 05 October 1990.
The Research and Analysis Wing [RAW] is
Founded in 1968, RAW focused largely on
Numerous missions were assigned to RAW upon its creation. These included monitoring political and military developments in neighboring countries that affects Indian national security. Consequently, considerable attention is paid by RAW to
RAW has evolved from its origins as a part of the Intelligence Bureau to develop into
RAW has a long history of activity in
During the course of its investigation the Jain Commission received testimony on the official Indian support to the various Sri Lankan Tamil armed groups in Tamil Nadu. From 1981, RAW and the Intelligence Bureau established a network of as many as 30 training bases for these groups in
RAW was heavily criticized in 1999, following the Pakistani incursions at Kargil. Critics accused RAW of failing to provide intelligence that could have prevented the ensuing ten-week conflict that brought
Most recently, RAW has gained attention for providing the
The objectives of RAW include:
To monitor the political and military developments in adjoining countries, which have direct bearing on
To seek the control and limitation of the supply of military hardware to
The chief of the RAW is designated Secretary (Research) in the Cabinet Secretariat, which is part of the Prime Minister's Office (PMO). Most of the position's occupants have been experts on either
They also have the benefit of training in either US or the
The structure of the RAW is a matter of speculation, but brief overviews of the same are present in the public domain. Attached to the HQ of RAW at
Some officers of the RAW are members of a specialized service, the Research and Analysis Service (RAS), but several officers also serve on deputation from other services. The RAW has sub-organizations like the Aviation Research Center (ARC), the Radio Research Center (RRC) or the Electronics and Technical Service (ETS), which have considerable capacity for technical intelligence gathering. Another important branch under the operational control of the RAW is the Directorate General of Security (DGS). This agency has oversight over organizations like the Special Frontier Force (SFF), the Special Services Bureau (SSB) etc... Liaison with the military is maintained through the Military Intelligence Advisory Group and the Military Advisor to the Director RAW.
Though the RAW is primarily intended for collecting intelligence beyond
's national borders, it has over time come to have a strong presence in all fields of intelligence gathering. The RAW was brought into internal security issues during the Sikkim situation, it played a role in the events of the emergency of 1977-79, it was asked to operate in Punjab to counter-balance the presence of the ISI (and so also in Kashmir), and the RAW has provided the security for the India's nuclear program. Right from its formation in 18 September, 1968, R N Kao, the founding father of RAW, picked up the best men from within government and from outside for RAW. A combination of military, academicians, bureaucrats and policemen was a fine start for RAW which modeled itself on the lines of CIA. India
The Central Intelligence Bureau (IB) is reputed to be the oldest intelligence agency in the world. In the past it was tasked with all intelligence targeting but in recent times it has focused on internal security. The IB is officially under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), but in practice the Director IB (DIB) is a member of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) and Steering Committee and has the authority to brief the Prime Minister should the need arise, but intelligence inputs (at least in theory) go through the regular channels in the MHA to the JIC.
The collection mechanisms of the IB vary depending on the region, but the IB operates both at the state level and the national level. The bulk of the intelligence collection is carried out by `Grade II' employees of the IB, i.e. in increasing order of seniority; the Security Assistants (Constable), the Junior Intelligence Officers (Head Constable), the Asst. (Central) Intelligence Officer (Sub-Inspector), Deputy Central Intelligence Officers (Inspector), and Joint Central Intelligence Officers (Superintendent of Police). The `Class I'(gazette) officers carry out coordination and higher-level management the IB. These officers are (again in increasing order of seniority) Asst. Director, the Deputy Director, Joint Director, Addl. Director, Special Director or Special Secretary and finally the Director IB. Grade II officers are in part direct recruitment and officer deputed from state police forces, but Class I officers are mostly deputed from state services.
At the state level all IB officers are part of the State Special Bureau report to a Central Intelligence Officer (the intelligence advisor to the Governor). The IB maintains a large number of field units and headquarters (which are under the control of Joint or Deputy Directors). It is through these offices and the intricate process of deputation that a very `organic' linkage between the state police agencies and the IB is maintained. In addition to these at the national level the IB has several units (in some cases Subsidiary Intelligence Bureaus) to keep track of issues like terrorism, counter-intelligence, VIP security and threat assessment, and sensitive areas (i.e. J&K, North East Region (NER) etc...).
Ministry of External Affairs
A highly specialised technical intelligence gathering agency, National Technical Facilities Organisation [NTFO], has been created by the government. While the agency would not affect the working of technical wings of various intelligence agencies, including those of armed forces, it will act as a super-feeder agency for providing technical intelligence to other agencies on internal and external security.
Joint Cipher Bureau
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is
The Central Bureau of Investigation has been responsible for the inquiry into into the Bofors Case. Associates of the late prime minister Rajiv Gandhi were linked to alleged pay-offs made in the mid-1980s by the Swedish arms form AB Bofors, with $40 million in kickbacks moved from
In 1994 two scientists with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and two Indian businessmen were arrested for allegedly conspiring to sell space secrets to two Maldivian women, who were originally described by newspapers as agents of Pakistani intelligence, for money and sex. The CBI investigation did not reveal the existence of a spy ring, and by early 1995 it was clear that the case was more a product of inexperience and over exuberation on the part of the police and Intelligence Bureau.
Department of Internal Security
Department of Revenue
Indian security threat environment
The intelligence apparatus in
1) There has been a sea change in the perception of what constitutes Indian "national space." The definition is much broader now and issues such as economics, media, and science that were for some time considered removed from the realm of intelligence targeting are now indivisible parts of it. At the very least concepts such as Economic-Warfare, Cyber-warfare, and Media-Offensive, etc... have served to increase intelligence targeting needs.
2) There is a change in the tenor of revisionist sentiment within the country. Revisionists today are able to use sophisticated resources to aggressively project their views. In some cases this leads to advanced forms of terrorism. It can also exacerbate the existing fissures and divisions in society i.e. caste, religion, ethnicity, and economic disparity. Intelligence agencies today are under a lot of pressure to predict and thus help contain revisionism.
3) The nature of organized crime has changed and its infiltration into society is growing. The merger of the local crime syndicates with narcotics distributors and arms smugglers has increased their destabilizing influence on society. This element often interacts with the elements mentioned in point 2, and produces extremely serious threats to national security. Intelligence targeting of these elusive and dangerous criminals is a difficult task especially as it involves crossing national borders.
4) Increased nuclear and missile technology proliferation to
The [Kargil Review Committee] task force on Intelligence Apparatus raises such issues in the chapter titled `The role of intelligence in the changing security environment'. The changed environment clearly places great strain on the intelligence services, so severe are the demands that in the case of the Central Intelligence Bureau that the task force on Internal Security has gone so far as to recommend that the charter of the IB be re-written. It is also quite clear that an emphasis is needed on the use of technical means of handling intelligence and the task force on Intelligence Apparatus was asked to look into ways of merging TECHINT into the entire intelligence collection system.
Jammu and Kashmir / Tamil Sri Lanka
Andhra Pradesh / Naxalite
Northeast / Nagaland
FYI: There are many external links (text with blue color) in the post, please use them for more information and to check for terminologies.